- Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major global health and
Ref. Maas et al 2008.
- TBI is the leading cause of death and disability in young
adults (Langlois 2006).
- The incidence in elderly patients is increasing.
- TBI can strike us all, but males are about twice as likely
as females to experience a TBI (Mushkudiani 2007).
- In younger patients Road Traffic Accidents are the most frequent
cause of injury; in older patients falls.
- Moderate and severe head injury (respectively) are associated
with a 2.3 and 4.5 times increased risk of Alzheimer's disease
- Direct medical costs and indirect costs (loss of productivity)
totalled an estimated $60 billion in the US in 2000.
Ref. Thurman 2001.
- Lifelong disability is common and includes:
- Impaired memory and problem solving
- Difficulty in managing stress and emotional upsets
- Problems in controlling one's temper
- Disturbed relationships
- TBI research is underfunded
Ref. Sobocki et al 2007.
- None of the Phase III RCT's in severe and moderate TBI succeeded to convincingly demonstrate efficacy of new therapies with sufficient generalizibility.
- Problems in clinical trial design and analysis may have contributed to this failure.
Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury in adults
Maas AIR, Stocchetti N, Bullock R.
The Lancet Neurology. 2008 Aug 7(8):728-741.
Epidemiology and economics of head trauma.
Miler L, Hayes R, eds. Head Trauma: basic, preclinical, and clinical directions. New York: Wiley and Sons, 2001:1193-202.
Brain research has high returns but Europe is lagging behind
Sobocki P, Olesen J, Jonsson B.
Eur J Neurol 2007;14:708-10.